Birds nest in trees, on the ground, on water, among cliffs, and in caves. They build their nurseries from plant materials, mud, dung, saliva, spider silk, pebbles, and animal hair. Some nests have roofs or multiple rooms. Some are simple scraped depressions in the earth or natural cavities in trees.
Most songbirds construct cup-shaped nests which require about 1000 trips to bring in building materials (1). The birds use their feet to scrape, chests to push, and beaks to manipulate twigs and grasses as they rotate. Exhausting! Why go to such an extreme effort? Predators. Birds living on predator-free islands nest on the ground.
Some ground-nesting birds have other ways of avoiding predators… like teaming up with defenders. The red-breasted goose of Siberia nests next to peregrine falcons. The geese act as look-outs for foxes; the falcons attack. Some birds build their nests in ant or termite colonies to protect the eggs.
These sleeping bird babies, pictured, are cardinals. Their parents built this camouflaged nest in the crook of a pear tree. If dad hadn’t stopped by with some breakfast, I would have never realized they were there.
- Collias, N.E. 1964. The Evolution of Nests and Nest Building in Birds. American Zoologist. 4: 175-190.
Goodbye to our adored cat, Flea (if you’ve followed this blog for a while, you may remember her from the post on the impacts cats have on bird populations). She was 19 years old and the master of everyone and everything in our home. She was an excellent overlord.
There is surprisingly little research on pet death and grief, but all the studies I read concluded that level of attachment paralleled amount of grief (duh). Most research also found similar results to McKutcheon and Flemming (2001), which indicated certain “risk factors” for humans. If you’re a young-ish female living alone, be prepared for a healthy dose of distress. The one factor that surprised me was whether the pet died of natural causes or euthanasia. Owners who euthanized their pets felt LESS grief.
I thought that the heavy responsibility of decisions associated with euthanasia would result in more guilt or ethical dilemmas, and therefore more grief. Pet owners who choose euthanasia are also, generally, much more attached to their pets. But this study hypothesizes that the support of veterinary staff, feeling of control, and acknowledgement that the pet will not recover may contribute to the differences.
Michael and I thank Flea’s end-of-life veterinarians for making the process easier on all of us. Sweet dreams, squishy Flea.
McKutcheon, KA and SJ Flemming. 2001. Grief resulting from euthanasia and natural death of companion animals. Journal of Death and Dying. 44(2) 169-188.
What would happen if an adorable 3-day old gosling was placed between two wire enclosures, one containing a sibling, and one containing a same-age gosling from another clutch? Would the baby bird recognize its brother or sister and patter over to its relative?
The answer: yes… at least as often as dentists recommend sugarless gum*. In four out of five trials, the little puffball sidled up to its sibling rather than a stranger’s young’un.
There’s one catch. The youngest goslings (ages 3–9 days) prefer groups. Even if it’s a group of unfamiliar goslings, the little bird almost always waddled over to an unknown group rather than a single relative. By 15 days old though, the youngsters reliably reunite with their kin, no matter how small their family.
p.s. I created this image at an awesome carbon dust workshop, coordinated by GNSI-Carolinas, this weekend. Marlene Hill Donnelly from the Chicago Field Museum was our fearless instructor – she’s wonderful!
*Radesäter, T. 1976. Individual sibling recognition in juvenile Canada geese (Branta canadensis). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 54(7): 1069–1072